Category: south america

The Ancient Ruins On and Beneath the Sacred Lake Titicaca: undefined

The Haunting of Nicasio Torres – The Fortean: undefined

Marauding Monsters in South America | Mysterious Universe:


“It was then that I saw two furry patches running away from me with a leaping sort of step through the foliage that bordered the clearing. As they bounded across the surface of a group of boulders at the far end of the clearing, I was able to catch a fleeting glimpse of them. They clearly were erect, hairy, apelike creatures, and appeared to be over 5 feet tall. Then they disappeared around the rocks into the jungle, and I heard the cracking sounds of dry twigs and branches as they hastily forged their way through the thick underbrush.”

Pterodactyls in South America? | Mysterious Universe: undefined


2018: Argentina’s Potential UFO Flap

By Luis Burgos

1. The provinces having the highest likelihood of sightings would be: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, La Pampa and Patagonia.
2. The 9 pm to 2 am rule would remain in effect.
3. The highest number of reports would occur during the second half of each month.
4. Evaluations will be conducted according to the Strangeness Index: Low-Average-Good-Very Good – Excellent.
5. While a UFO flap includes high altitude sightings, landings, humanoids, UFO crashes, USOs, photos, videos, etc. the LITS (Lights in the Sky) and “phantom UFO” photographs will not be taken into account so as to avoid engrossing the lists to excess.
6. Finally, we utterly reject the old Psycho-Social Hypotheses which hold that “announcements of forecasts generate false expectations and condition people to see UFOs, as well as the population’s willingness to believe and/or see all manner of phenomena during periods of crisis…”

What all is known about this most eastern Incan settlement which is now in modern day Bolivia? • r/AskHistorians:


Answer by /u/Qhapaqocha

Before getting too into this site (known as Samaipata), it should be recognized that the Inca rocketed into the position of largest land empire in the Americas within ninety years – as a result, their imperial strategies were opportunistic and quite diverse, depending on who they were dealing with and when. The empire had rich connections with certain groups going back centuries just downstream from the Sacred Valley (north of the Inca heartland and the capital, Cuzco). When the Spanish decapitated the Inca state and forced its remnants into the jungle, it was the Antis and other allies of the yungas (a transitional hilly zone between Andean highland and Amazonian lowland) who protected and maintained connections with the Inca rump state. Recently Darryl Wilkinson, an archaeologist working in this region, has argued that in kinder times for the empire, several outposts along the Urubamba River were constructed specifically as spaces to receive Amazonian tribal authorities from downriver, wine and dine them, and enter into trade for tropical goods (not just fruits, but hallucinogenic drugs, and even anacondas and jaguars). Farther north, they had a contentious relationship with the Chachapoyas, who resisted Inca rule for decades and constructed fortresses of their own such as Kuelap.

Samaipata is recognized as the easternmost extent of the Inca Empire by longitude, but some have considered it understood better as part of a “southern strategy” for the Inca: that is to say, a region contentious with numerous groups in the lowlands (especially the Guaranis), and with a high level of fortification. Following the account of the chronicler Betanzos, D’Altroy discusses how Samaipata was only one of several fortresses along this hardened eastern frontier, and how the Inca fought hard to establish and maintain control of this region (D’Altroy 2002:73). However, Hyslop (1990:122) disputes this fortification narrative, for the simple fact that there appear to be no fortresses or garrisons, and that the chronicler Alcaya puts the border another hundred kilometers to the east, down the Piray and Guapay rivers. Regardless of whether Samaipata was an exercise in hard or soft power, the Inca carved an immense complex onto an outcrop above the Inca-period town (for comparison, here is a similar carved outcrop complex on the north edge of Cuzco with seats for Inca nobles and offerings to be made). The outcrop has numerous channels and paths for water (or perhaps chicha, corn beer) to flow over the stone as an offering to the landscape and a show of Inca hegemony. Relief carvings are present of snakes and birds, many niches are present for offerings to the outcrop, and some structure foundations remain present today.

I’m away from most of my sources and the library where I could find more recent work on Samaipata – but it appears that the site was much more of an “eastern jewel in the crown” of Tawantinsuyu, and not so much a frontier settlement. Borders are fickle things. 🙂

Briefly wrapping this up, the relationship between Andean cultures and Amazonian ones is one still up for contention and discussion. This is not only because Amazonian lifeways and peoples organized themselves differently on the landscape, but because (in comparison with the dry coast or highlands of Peru) they didn’t readily reveal themselves as habitation sites; this spurred scholars like Betty Meggers to argue that the Amazon was always sparsely populated, because it was a marginal and difficult environment for people to develop cultural complexity. In opposition to this, Donald Lathrap argued that much of what made Andean culture distinctive came from the Amazon. As archaeologists delve deeper into the Amazon, we are realizing that Lathrap was much closer to the truth than Meggers.

For further reading:

For a general overview, Terence D’Altroy’s The Incas (Blackwell, 2002) is still in my opinion the standard to work from in understanding the Inca and springboarding into the literature. There are other options as well, including works by Craig Morris and Adriana von Hagen, and Gordon McEwan.

John Hyslop’s Inka Settlement Planning (1990) was an immense volume for understanding the Inca – he traveled along the road system, got into the structural grammar of the empire, and discusses many aspects of how they made their presence and empire work at an architectural and logistical level. The more I return to it, the more impressive it gets.

Happy to chat about this or anything else if you have further questions!


Chile: “Patagonia is Being Visited by an Intelligence We Cannot Understand”

Source: Planeta UFO and Tiempo Sur (
Date: 10.25.2017

Chile: “Patagonia is Being Visited by an Intelligence We Cannot Understand”

These were the words spoken to TS-Digital by Patricio Frias, director of UFO Noise Patagonia. His group is devoted to the study and diffusion of the subject of UFOs in the region. In an interview, he explained the area is ‘visited’ by entities due to its high electromagnetic energy and mineral deposits.

Patricio Frias is a regional ufologist and director of the UFO Noise Patagonia organization, a group responsible for collecting reports and disseminating cases involving sightings of Unidentified Flying Objects as well as manifestations, chases and encounters involving these “entities”. TS-Digital interviewed Frias, who explained the nature of his work for the organization and why the region boasts some of the highest numbers of sightings. He noted that “Patagonia is visited by an intelligence we cannot understand”, while explaining that the phenomena occur due to the large amount of water and mineral reserves. As documented by UFO Noise, at least 150 anomalous events have taken place in the region.